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Exposure to on-the-job health hazards is a problem faced by workers worldwide. Unlike safety hazards that may lead to injury, health hazards can lead to various types of illness. For example, exposures to some chemicals used in work processes may cause immediate sensory irritation (e.g., stinging or burning eyes, dry throat, cough); in other cases, workplace chemicals may cause cancer in workers many years after exposure. There are millions of U.S. workers exposed to chemicals in their work each year. In order to make recommendations for working safely in the presence of chemical hazards, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducts risk assessments. In simple terms, risk assessment is a way of relating a hazard, like a toxic chemical in the air, to potential health risks associated with exposure to that hazard. Risk assessment allows NIOSH to make recommendations for controlling exposures in the workplace to reduce health risks.