At IBEC, we are committed to making datasets resulting from investigator publications more accessible.
Global Economic Highlights: U.S. Set for Another Robust Jobs Report for April; Central Banks Likely to Talk Tapering in UK, Hike in Brazil This Week
The PNC Financial Services Group’s May 2, 2021 Economic Report
Global Economic Highlights: Federal Reserve to Stay the Course in April, but Other Major Central Banks Are Already Considering or Starting to Taper
The PNC Financial Services Group’s April 26, 2021 Economic Report
Global Economic Highlights: Fed Maintains Commitment to Aggressive Monetary Policy; Global Monetary Policy Stances Starting to Diverge
The PNC Financial Services Group’s March 22, 2021 Economic Report
Global Economic Highlights: Stimulus Bill and Vaccine Rollout Boost the US Growth Outlook; UK in Double-Dip Recession as EU Trade Plunges
The PNC Financial Services Group’s March 15, 2021 Economic Report
Global Economic Highlights: Better Than Expected U.S. Job Growth in February, But Still a Long Way from Recovered; ECB Set to Tamp Down Yields
The PNC Financial Services Group’s March 8, 2021 Economic Report
Global Economic Highlights: Stimulus Lifts U.S. Personal Income Sharply in January, and Expenditures Rise, Too; ECB Likely to Increase Pace of QE
The PNC Financial Services Group’s March 1, 2021 Economic Report
Global Economic Highlights: Fed on Hold in January as U.S. Muddles Through Early 2021’s Economic Soft Patch; ECB Is Trying to Talk Down the Euro
The PNC Financial Services Group’s February 1, 2021 Economic Report
Global Economic Highlights: ECB on Hold in January Amid Second Eurozone Downturn; a Global Double-Dip Recession Could Be Underway
The PNC Financial Services Group’s January 25, 2021 Economic Report
Global Economic Highlights: Brexit Uncertainty Resolves, but UK-EU Trade Tensions to Persist; US Jobless Claims Edged Lower in Late December
The PNC Financial Services Group’s January 4, 2021 Economic Report
Global Economic Highlights: Fed Chair Emphasizes Monetary Policy to Be Looser for Longer than in Prior Recovery; Mexico Cuts Policy Rate
The PNC Financial Services Group’s February 16, 2021 Economic Report
Export Growth to Slow as Developed-World Consumers Shift Spending Back to Services and Away from Made-In-China Goods
China’s economy faces new challenges as its developed-world export markets emerge from the pandemic. After controlling the pandemic’s spread in the spring of 2020, China reopened its economy earlier and with fewer restrictions than other large economies. Real GDP plunged 8.7% in quarterly seasonally-adjusted terms in the first quarter of 2020 (not annualized), bounced back […]
Barrier Face Coverings and NIOSH Performance/Performance Plus Masks Conforming BFCs and Workplace Performance/Performance Plus Masks The Table below list BFCs and Workplace Performance/Performance Plus masks that conform to the ASTM F3502-21 and NIOSH requirements, respectively. The quantitative test results were provided to NIOSH by the manufacturers. Contact information is provided so you can contact […]
This fact sheet summarizes best practices for national implementation to sustain supplies of personal protective equipment (PPE) while ensuring the protection of healthcare personnel (HCP) and first responders during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic response.
Following the tragic events of September 11, 2001, new legislation, Presidential Directives, and national plans called upon the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to support government-wide efforts to prevent, protect, mitigate, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks, natural disasters, catastrophic incidents, and other hazards. Although these homeland security responsibilities can be traced to EPA’s traditional role in consequence […]
Every activity, event, or gathering should be assessed for risk and an action plan developed incorporating the relevant key aspects detailed in this brochure. There are numerous considerations and no “one size fits all” approach will be sufficient to keep people safe and healthy. The organization’s leadership team should work together to assess the risk and develop […]
The 2014 outbreak of the Ebola virus and the recent spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have renewed interest in germicidal ultraviolet (GUV) lamps for disinfection. UV radiant energy was first used for disinfecting surfaces in 1877,1,2 for water in 1910,3 and for air in 1935.4 GUV’s use in recent decades has been […]
Hospitality at its core is an industry of people taking care of people. The safety of our guests and employees has always been our number one priority. Now as we work to reopen our nation’s economy, we want to ensure travelers that hotels will be cleaner and safer than ever before when they are ready […]
The purpose of this standard is to specify minimum ventilation rates and other measures intended to provide indoor air quality that is acceptable to human occupants and that minimizes adverse health effects. This standard is intended for regulatory application to new buildings, additions to existing buildings, and those changes to existing buildings that are identified […]
With infectious diseases transmitted through aerosols, HVAC systems can have a major effect on the transmission from the primary host to secondary hosts. Decreasing exposure of secondary hosts is an important step in curtailing the spread of infectious diseases. Designers of mechanical systems should be aware that ventilation is not capable of addressing all aspects […]
Many kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) schools in the United States do not have good ventilation. This is a longstanding problem with demonstrably negative effects on student learning. We can and should act to fix this to ensure good indoor air quality for all students, educators, and school staff. During the COVID-19 pandemic, it is […]
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus has had an enormous, as yet barely understood, impact on health and economic outlook at the global level. The identification of effective microbicide approaches is of paramount importance in order to limit further viral spread, as the virus can be transmitted via aerosol and can survive for hours […]
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Sarbecovirus, family Coronaviridae, is a positive-polarity single-stranded RNA virus that probably originated in bats and is the causative agent of coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19). The dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic have proven to be complex. Many challenges remain pertaining to a better understanding of […]
Buildings have been associated with spread of infectious diseases, such as outbreaks of measles, influenza, and Legionella. With SARS-CoV-2, the majority of outbreaks involving 3 or more people have been linked with time spent indoors, and evidence confirms that far-field airborne transmission (defined as within-room but beyond 6 feet) of SARS-CoV-2 is occurring. Controlling concentrations […]
Association of Sociodemographic Factors and Blood Group Type With Risk of COVID-19 in a US Population
The observed variability in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 and severity of the ensuing COVID-19 have raised intense interest in their environmental and genetic risk factors. An early report from China suggested that blood group A was associated with increased susceptibility and blood group O was associated with reduced susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. These reports motivated widespread […]
Reassuring the Public and Clinical Community About the Scientific Review and Approval of a COVID-19 Vaccine
Public perception of the review of medications and vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become enmeshed in politics. The pressure on the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Commissioner Stephen Hahn, MD, to approve the broad use of a COVID-19 vaccine in the coming months will be immense. However, a lack of clarity […]
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in China in late 2019 and is caused by newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Previous studies had reported the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture media and deposited onto surfaces under a limited set of environmental conditions. Here, we broadly investigated the effects of […]
Anaphylaxis to the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines is currently estimated to occur in 2.5 to 11.1 cases per 1 million doses, largely in individuals with a history of allergy. Allergic concerns contribute to vaccine hesitancy; we investigated acute allergic reaction incidence after more than 60 000 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine administrations.
COVID-19 has resulted in more than 120 million cases and 2.6 million deaths to date. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms are accompanied by short- and long-term neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPs) and long-term brain sequelae. Some patients present with anosmia, cognitive and attention deficits (ie, brain fog), new-onset anxiety, depression, psychosis, seizures, and even suicidal behavior. These present […]
S-Gene Target Failure as a Marker of Variant B.1.1.7 Among SARS-CoV-2 Isolates in the Greater Toronto Area, December 2020 to March 2021
A novel variant of SARS-CoV-2, B.1.1.7, originally discovered in the UK, is rapidly overtaking wild-type SARS-CoV-2 globally,1 due to a substantial transmission advantage. This variant is estimated to be 40% to 80% more transmissible2 and 35% more lethal3 than the wild-type virus. Deletion of amino acids 69 and 70 within the spike (S) gene of […]
It is generally agreed that striking a balance between resuming economic and social activities and keeping the effective reproductive number (R0) below 1 using non-pharmaceutical interventions is an important goal until and even after effective vaccines become available. Therefore, the need remains to understand how the virus is transmitted in order to identify high-risk environments and activities that disproportionately […]
Common indoor air pollutants include a wide variety of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous contaminants. Airborne PM ranges in size from a few nanometers (nm) to tens of micrometers (μm) and is composed of both biological and non-biological matter. Indoor particles are commonly categorized into coarse particles (PM10) at 10 μm to 2.5 μm diameter, […]
Potential application of Air Cleaning devices and personal decontamination to manage transmission of COVID-19
Application of air-cleaning devices may be a useful strategy to reduce airborne transmission risks in poorly ventilated spaces (medium confidence). Air cleaning devices have limited benefit in spaces that are already adequately ventilated, and are not necessary for adequately ventilated buildings unless there are identified specific risks (medium confidence). Air cleaning devices are not a […]
Frontline health care workers are at high risk of contracting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV- 2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Personal protective equipment (PPE), including N95 respirators (N95s), is essential for prevention of COVID-19. The recommends that health care workers dispose of N95s after a single patient encounter. However, it recommends N95 […]
The transmission modes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remain controversial. At the emerging stage of the pandemic, many countries implemented high-level precautions, including airborne and contact precautions, to prevent the spread from patients to health care professionals (HCPs). An emerging understanding of SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology, which is primarily transmitted from person to person […]
Comparison of Saliva and Nasopharyngeal Swab Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing for Detection of SARS-CoV-2
Testing is the cornerstone of a successful public health response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nasopharyngeal sampling for nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) is the current noninvasive criterion standard diagnostic test. However, nasopharyngeal testing requires trained personnel and handling of a specially designed swab, and the technique cannot be easily or reliably performed in all […]
Current practices in the treatment of infectious diseases are the result of two fundamental changes in antimicrobial therapy that occurred in the mid-20th century: the transition from pathogen-specific therapy to non-pathogen-specific therapy and the shift toward emphasis on antiinfective strategies that target microbial pathogens over those that enhance host immunity. The alarming rise in antimicrobial-resistant strains, […]
The current scope and role of the Research and Development Chemical and Biological Defense Department (RD-CB) within the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) is to develop materiel, medical products and capabilities that enable the Warfighter to remain lethal in areas contested with chemical and biological (CB) weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The focus of the RD-CB […]
Ventilation and laboratory confirmed acute respiratory infection (ARI) rates in college residence halls in College Park, Maryland
Strategies to protect building occupants from the risk of acute respiratory infection (ARI) need to consider ventilation for its ability to dilute and remove indoor bioaerosols. Prior studies have described an association of increased self-reported colds and influenza-like symptoms with low ventilation but have not combined rigorous characterization of ventilation with assessment of laboratory-confirmed infections. […]
Characterization of infectious aerosols in health care facilities: An aid to effective engineering controls and preventive strategies
Assessment of strategies for engineering controls for the prevention of airborne infectious disease transmission to patients and to health care and related workers requires consideration of the factors relevant to aerosol characterization. These factors include aerosol generation, particle sizes and concentrations, organism viability, infectivity and virulence, airflow and climate, and environmental sampling and analysis. The […]
ASHRAE is a global professional society of over 55,000 members committed to serve humanity by advancing the arts and sciences of heating, ventilation, air conditioning, refrigeration and their allied fields. ASHRAE has established a Task Force to help deploy technical resources to address the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic and possible future epidemics as it […]
New law preventing COVID-19: the first effort to prevent occupational transmission of disease of the 21st century in the USA
Using legislative policy analysis methods, this article describes the traditional principles of state labor relations that were rewritten using the legislative pen, now instead requiring risk assessment for all employees and employers to thereby prevent occupational transmission of disease. As discussed here, Virginia, the USA state, responded with a COVID-19 prevention law deploying modern industrial […]
The global spread of COVID-19 in early 2020 has significantly increased the demand for face masks around the world while stimulating research about their efficacy. Here we adapt a re- recently demonstrated optical imaging approach and highlight stark differences in the effectiveness of different masks and mask alternatives to suppress the spread of respiratory droplets […]
On September 23, 1999, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a request for a Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) at the Fremont Beef Company in Fremont, Nebraska. The request, from management officials at the plant, concerned worker exposures to ozone during research and development (R&D) procedures for a new sanitation treatment process […]
Protecting the health, safety and welfare of the world’s students, faculty, and administrators from the spread of SARS-Cov-2 (the virus that causes the COVID-19 disease) is essential to protecting the entire population. ASHRAE’s guidance for schools provides practical information and checklists to help minimize the chance of spreading SARS-CoV-2. A summary of key general recommendations […]
Approximately 80% of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 report persistent symptoms several months after infection onset. However, knowledge of long-term outcomes among individuals with mild COVID-19 is scarce, and prevalence data are hampered by selection bias and suboptimal control groups. This cohort study investigated COVID-19–related long-term symptoms in health care professionals.
On March 11, 2020, less than 2 weeks after community transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) was identified in the US, the World Health Organization declared that the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak was a global pandemic. By March 25, 2020, all kindergarten to grade 12 (K-12) public schools in the […]
Position Paper: Bioterrorism Preparedness & Response A Proposed Model for Bioterrorism Response: Initial Operations and Characterization
This paper presents the position of the InterAgency Board (IAB) on an approach to developing a national bioterrorism response capability to address long-standing gaps in domestic bioterrorism preparedness and response. The IAB proposes a model that brings together public safety jurisdictions, federal resources, processes, standards, and doctrine to support the creation of a network of locally owned and operated […]
As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the novel coronavirus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), began to spread globally, it became apparent that the virus, unlike the closely related SARS-CoV in the 2003 outbreak, could not be contained by symptom-based screening alone. Asymptomatic and clinically mild infections were uncommon during the 2003 SARS-CoV […]
The United States has mobilized the full force of its clinical research enterprise to address the Covid-19 pandemic, allocating billions of dollars to support timely research. As of January 2021, for example, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) had issued nearly a thousand awards cumulatively worth roughly $2 billion to support Covid-19 projects ranging from […]
More Than 1 in 3 US Adults Use Disinfectants Unsafely; In a recent online survey, 39% of US adults reported using disinfectants and other cleaning products in potentially harmful ways as they tried to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.
News From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Precautions Limited Cases at Milwaukee Primary
High rates of voting by mail and other pre- prevention strategies during Milwaukee’s April primary limited the election-related spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), according to a report by CDC and City of Milwaukee Health Department researchers.
Nearly 1 in 5 hospitals reduced in-person lactation support and nearly three-quarters discharged new mothers in less than 48 hours to lessen the risk of contracting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, according to a CDC report.
The current pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has undergone an observed exponential increase of cases that has overrun hospitals across the world. Many people have mild forms of the disease and are advised not to go to the hospital or to seek a diagnostic test […]
Aerosols represent a potential transmission route of COVID-19. This study examined the effect of simulated sunlight, relative humidity, and suspension matrix on the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in aerosols. Simulated sunlight and matrix significantly affected the decay rate of the virus. Relative humidity alone did not affect the decay rate; however, minor interactions between relative humidity and other […]
Many individuals experience persistent symptoms and a decline in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness. Existing studies have focused on hospitalized individuals 30 to 90 days after illness onset and have reported symptoms up to 110 days after illness. Longer-term sequelae in outpatients have not been well characterized.
Facilities outfit with sensor monitors will be able to detect pathogens in water, air, and surfaces. In the event that someone who has recently been in the facility tests positive for COVID-19, the facility can run sensor tests and see if any spaces are compromised.
Over the course of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, the clinical, scientific, and public health communities have had to respond to new viral genetic variants. Each one has triggered a flurry of media attention, a range of reactions from the scientific community, and calls from governments to either “stay calm” or […]
Addressing Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Decontamination: Methylene Blue and Light Inactivates SARS-CoV-2 on N95 Respirators and Masks with Maintenance of Integrity and Fit
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in critical personal protective equipment (PPE) shortages, especially filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs, also known as N95 respirators) and medical masks (MMs). N95 FFRs are respiratory protective devices which are designed to filter at least 95% of airborne particles. A MM is a medical device […]
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Social Distancing Interventions to Delay or Flatten the Epidemic Curve of Coronavirus Disease
By April 2, 2020, >1 million persons worldwide were infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We used a mathematical model to investigate the effectiveness of social distancing interventions in a mid-sized city. Interventions reduced contacts of adults >60 years of age, adults 20–59 years of age, and children <19 years of age for […]
Studies by the signatories and other scientists have demonstrated beyond any reasonable doubt that viruses are released during exhalation, talking, and coughing in microdroplets small enough to remain aloft in air and pose a risk of exposure at distances beyond 1–2 m from an infected individual. For example, at typical indoor air velocities, a 5-μm […]
Exposure to on-the-job health hazards is a problem faced by workers worldwide. Unlike safety hazards that may lead to injury, health hazards can lead to various types of illness. For example, exposures to some chemicals used in work processes may cause immediate sensory irritation (e.g., stinging or burning eyes, dry throat, cough); in other cases, […]
“This is the training program no business can be without, not only during this pandemic, but long after. Prevention, health and safety, leadership, employee morale, customer relations – it’s all here.” Ambassador [ret.] Dr. Neil Parsan
Proper disinfectant and disinfection concepts of operations (CONOPs) depend on the type of surface, material compatibility, and surface dimensions/complexity. Provided here are several U.S. Government references that address a broad range of questions regarding decontamination CONOPs and other operations within environments where SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, may be present. These references are provided in alphabetical […]
The global struggle against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now in its eighth month since the pandemic virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), first emerged. The severe economic, personal, and psychological adverse effects of shutdowns and social distancing make these effective preventive measures challenging to sustain long-term. In 1999, just before the launch […]
Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 Screening Strategies to Permit the Safe Reopening of College Campuses in the United States
Universities across the United States are struggling with the question of whether and how to reopen for the fall 2020 semester. Residential colleges, with communal living arrangements, shared dining spaces, intimate classrooms, and a population of young adults anxious to socialize, pose a particular challenge. In the absence of an effective vaccine, a proven therapy, […]
The risk of contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during air travel is lower than from an office building, classroom, supermarket, or commuter train. Modern airplanes maintain clean air by circulating a mix of fresh air and air recycled through HEPA filters, the same type of air filters used in hospital operating rooms.
A global shortage of respirators (e.g., N95 and N100) and surgical masks has led the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to recommend conservation and, when necessary, the reuse of respiratory personal protective equipment (PPE in response to the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) surge. As a last resort, homemade masks […]
It’s not just the mask, it’s the humidity created inside the mask that helps protect against severe COVID-19, a recent study by National Institutes of Health (NIH) researchers suggests. The use of cloth masks has been linked with decreased disease severity, which is sur- prising considering such masks aren’t good at filtering out the smallest […]
The stability of an isolate of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 lineage in aerosols is similar to three earlier isolates
The stability in aerosols of four SARS-CoV-2 isolates, including one from lineage B.1.1.7, is similar when compared across multiple environmental conditions. These results suggest that transmissibility differences among SARS-CoV-2 lineages are likely not due to differences in aerosol stability.
Allergic Reactions Including Anaphylaxis After Receipt of the First Dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine
On December 11, 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for the Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine, administered as 2 doses separated by 21 days. Shortly after, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued an interim recommendation for its use. Following implementation of vaccination, reports of […]
Question What is the household secondary attack rate for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)? Findings In this meta-analysis of 54 studies with 77 758 participants, the estimated overall household secondary attack rate was 16.6%, higher than observed secondary attack rates for SARS CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Controlling for differences across studies, secondary attack rates were higher in households from symptomatic index cases […]
Protect Yourself • The SARS-CoV2 virus is much more likely to be spread as respiratory droplets than through contaminated objects and surfaces • Practice good hand hygiene • Wash hands preferably with soap and water for at least 20 seconds before touching your face, eyes, or respirator; use a hand sanitizer with at least 60% ethanol or 70% isopropanol when unable […]
Equipment • Check instructions for proper cleaning procedures • Wear disposable clean gloves • If soiled, first clean surfaces with approved cleaner (soap and water, for example) • Diluted bleach or at least 70% isopropyl alcohol is appropriate for many non-porous surfaces – Dilute household bleach to about 2% (4 teaspoons per quart (4 cups) of tap water) – Ensure […]
Cleaning procedures: • Check labeled instructions for proper cleaning procedures • Wear disposable clean gloves • If soiled, first clean surfaces with approved cleaner (soap and water, for example) • Apply a disinfectant to kill the virus, the surface must stay wet for the entire time on the label, this may require up to 10 minutes for some products • […]
SARS-CoV-2 is an RNA virus that has a diameter of approximately 0.1 μm. It is transmitted by respiratory droplets and aerosols such that one of the most effective ways to prevent infection is to wear filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). The commonly used FFRs are N95 respirators, devices that by design filter 95% or more of […]
As COVID-19 cases resulting from infection with SARS-CoV-2 variants accumulate in the US and around the world, one question looms large: How well do the COVID-19 vaccines developed so far protect against these novel coronavirus spinoffs?
6-month neurological and psychiatric outcomes in 236 379 survivors of COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study using electronic health records
Since the COVID-19 pandemic began on March 11, 2020, there has been concern that survivors might be at an increased risk of neurological disorders. This concern, initially based on findings from other coronaviruses, was followed rapidly by case series, emerging evidence of COVID-19 CNS involvement, and the identification of mechanisms by which this could occur. Similar concerns have been […]
A year into the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic there remains an urgent need to limit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread and to curb the pandemic in the US through nonpharmaceutical interventions. Clear evidence supports the effectiveness of simple strategies in identifying risks and mitigating the spread of infection, with much of […]
Development of a Method to Determine the Fractional Deposition Efficiency of Full-Scale HVAC and HEPA Filter Cassettes for Nanoparticles ≥3.5 nm
Abstract: Novel methods have been developed to measure the fractional deposition efficiency for nanoparticles of full-scale HVAC and HEPA filter cassettes down to a particle size of 3.5 nm. The methods use a flame spray nanoparticle generator to produce NaCl test aerosols with narrow size distributions and very high concentrations. While the efficiency curves of […]
Chlorine dioxide is a yellow to reddish-yellow gas that can decompose rapidly in air. Because it is a hazardous gas, chlorine dioxide is always made at the location where it is used. Chlorine dioxide is used as a bleach at pulp mills, which make paper and paper products, and in public water-treatment facilities, to make […]
COVID-19: Does the infectious inoculum dose-response relationship contribute to understanding heterogeneity in disease severity and transmission dynamics?
The variation in the speed and intensity of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and severity of the resulting COVID-19 disease are still imperfectly understood. We postulate a dose-response relationship in COVID-19, and that “the dose of virus in the initial inoculum” is an important missing link in understanding several incompletely explained observations in COVID-19 as a factor in […]
The COVID-19 pandemic has had widespread effects across the globe, and its causative agent, SARS-CoV-2, continues to spread. Effective interventions need to be developed to end this pandemic. Single and combination therapies with monoclonal antibodies have received emergency use authorization, and more treatments are under development. Furthermore, multiple vaccine constructs have shown promise, including two […]
The degree to which children and adolescents are infected by and transmit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is unclear. The role of children and adolescents in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is dependent on susceptibility, symptoms, viral load, social contact patterns, and behavior.
The success of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination effort may be limited by the ability to equitably and expediently reach the general public in the final deployment phase. Prior experience has shown that significant cultural, economic, racial, and communication barriers prevent widespread participation in public health initiatives, such as COVID-19 testing and, now, vaccination. […]
Future perspectives of wastewater-based epidemiology: Monitoring infectious disease spread and resistance to the community level
Infectious diseases are acknowledged as one of the most critical threats to global public health today. Climate change, unprecedented population growth with accelerated rates of antimicrobial resistance, have resulted in both the emergence of novel pathogenic organisms and the re-emergence of infections that were once controlled. The consequences have led to an increased vulnerability to […]
Evaluating a commercially available in-duct bipolar ionization device for pollutant removal and potential byproduct formation.
We conducted a series of experiments to evaluate the gas and particle removal effectiveness and potential for byproduct formation resulting from the operation of a commercially available in-duct bipolar ionization device. Laboratory tests were conducted with the ionizer installed in a small air handler serving a large semi-furnished chamber. Chamber experiments were conducted under normal […]
National efforts to develop a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine at “warp speed” will likely yield a safe and effective vaccine by early 2021. However, this important milestone is only the first step in an equally important challenge: getting a majority of the US public vaccinated. In a September 2020 survey of 10 093 US […]
We present severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) real-time RT-PCR results of all respiratory and faecal samples from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, China, throughout the course of their illness and obligated quarantine period. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect COVID-19 following the recommended protocol […]
Are the quantity and quality of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) different among children, adolescents, and young adults?
From SARS and MERS to COVID-19: a brief summary and comparison of severe acute respiratory infections.
Within two decades, there have emerged three highly pathogenic and deadly human coronaviruses, namely SARS- CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. The economic burden and health threats caused by these coronaviruses are extremely dreadful and getting more serious as the increasing number of global infections and attributed deaths of SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. Unfortunately, specific medical countermeasures for […]
The Sars-CoV-2 outbreak started initially in Wuhan and spread rapidly around the world. It was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organisation in March 2020. As of the 12th of July 2020, there have been over 12,000,000 confirmed cases and 500,000 deaths, though the true number of cases is likely to be much higher due to […]
We appeal to the medical community and to the relevant national and international bodies to recognize the potential for airborne spread of COVID-19. There is significant potential for inhalation exposure to viruses in microscopic respiratory droplets (microdroplets) at short to medium distances (up to several meters, or room scale), and we are advocating for the use of preventive […]
Efforts to control the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 rely on the virus’ ability to survive in the air and on surfaces. S&T is executing high-impact projects to help answer critical questions about the SARS-CoV-2 virus, including: – How stable is the virus in different conditions? – How effective are different decontamination products on surfaces? – How can we […]