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Common indoor air pollutants include a wide variety of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous contaminants.
Airborne PM ranges in size from a few nanometers (nm) to tens of micrometers (μm) and is composed of both biological and non-biological matter. Indoor particles are commonly categorized into coarse particles (PM10) at 10 μm to 2.5
μm diameter, fine particles (PM2.5) at 2.5 μm or smaller, and ultrafine particles at 1 μm (PM1)
or smaller. Types of indoor particles, ranked generally from largest to smallest in size, include pollen, fibers, fungal spores and fragments, dust, pet dander, allergens, bacteria, vehicle exhaust infiltrated from outdoors, viruses, and emissions from smoking, cooking, and other combustion sources. Fine particles (PM2.5) in outdoor air are known to cause adverse human health effects.